Function of Sugars

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Objectives:
• To understand, determine and compare the relative sweetness of several sugars and alternative sweeteners.
• To understand the affect of sugars on structure and taste of a finished baked product.
• To view and demonstrate the phase changes of sugar as it is heated.


Comparative Tasting

Equipment

Disposable paper cups (8)
Cup of plain water (1)
Discard receptacle
Ballot

Ingredients

10% Sucrose Solution
10% Fructose Solution
10% Glucose Solution
10% Maltose Solution
10% Lactose Solution
.05% Stevia (Steviol glycoside) Solution
.033% Reb A Solution
.04% Monk Fruit (Mogoroside V) Solution

Procedure

1. One fl oz of each solution will be placed in labeled disposable paper cup for each student.
2. Comparative ballot based on Onset, Duration, and Aftertaste, as well as flavor/mouth feel comments will be explained.
3. Taste the Sucrose solution first to provide a reference score of 1 (100) for each category.
4. Taste through each successive solution, recording scores for each category for each solution. Less sweet than sucrose = <1, more sweet = >1, scaled accordingly. Rinse mouth with clean plain water between samples. Samples do not need to be swallowed; they can be discarded in spare cup.
5. Record any observations on flavor, mouth feel, or any other noticeable characteristics.
6. Discuss rankings and observations with other panelists.
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Sugar Cookies (adapted from Mrs. Fields Cookie Book)

Equipment

Digital Balance
Stand Mixer with Paddle Attachment
Medium Mixing Bowl
Whisk
Rubber Spatula
Plastic Wrap
Pasta Rolling Machine or Rolling Pin
3” Circle Cutter
Half Sheet Tray (4)
Spatula
Oven

Ingredients

140 g All-Purpose Flour
.75 g Salt
75 g White Sugar (sucrose)
26 g Egg, whisked
AN Flour for dusting
Procedure

1. Place flour and salt in medium mixing bowl. Stir to combine with whisk.
2. Place butter and sugar in bowl of stand mixer. Cream together over medium speed.
3. Add egg and mix thoroughly. Stop mixer and scrape down sides with rubber spatula.
4. Add flour/salt mixture. Mix on low speed until just combined.
5. Remove from bowl and gather into ball. Divide into 4 portions and flatten each into disk.
6. Wrap each disk in plastic wrap and refrigerate for 1 hour.
7. Preheat oven to 3250F
8. After 1 hour, remove dough disks from fridge.
9. Remove plastic wrap and roll to ¼” thickness with rolling pin on floured surface or with pasta rolling machine (widest setting).
10. Use circle cutter to cut cookie from dough sheet and place on sheet trays.
11. Bake at 3250F for 13-15 min. Do not allow color formation.
12. When cooked remove from oven and remove from sheet tray with spatula. Place on ambient temperature sheet try to cool.

Variations:
1. Replace white sugar (sucrose) with 75 g Fructose

A cookie made with fructose is darker due to Maillard reaction and less crispy. Fructose is almost twice as sweet as sucrose. Many diabetics use fructose since it doesn't affect their blood sugar as dramatically as sucrose.

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Cooked Sugar Phases (adapted from The Professional Pastry Chef, 2nd Ed)

Equipment

Digital Balance
Small Saucepot
Sugar Thermometer
Pastry Brush in Clean Water
Spoon or Ladle
Ice Bath (bowl of ice and water)
Sheet Tray with Silicone Baking Mat

Ingredients

325 ml Water
285 g Granulated Sugar
170 g Glucose or Light Corn Syrup
Procedure

1. Combine ingredients in small saucepot.
2. Bring to boil over medium heat. Brush down sides of pot with clean brush to help avoid crystallization. Once sugar is boiling stop brush and do not stir.
3. Insert sugar thermometer.
4. Cook syrup until 1150C (Soft Ball Stage), remove a spoonful to the ice bath and remove quickly. Place in one corner of lined sheet tray. Continue cooking rest of syrup.
5. Cook syrup until 1250C (Hard Ball Stage), remove a spoonful to the ice bath and remove quickly. Place in one corner of lined sheet tray. Continue cooking rest of syrup.
6. Cook syrup until 1500C (Hard Crack Stage), remove a spoonful, place in one corner of lined sheet tray. Continue cooking rest of syrup.
7. Cook syrup until 1600C (Caramelization), remove a spoonful, place in one corner of lined sheet tray. Continue cooking rest of syrup.
8. Continue to remove one spoonful at different color levels, until dark color is reached, then pour onto empty space of silicon lined sheet tray.
9. Observe differences in look and texture of sugar products.

Demo didn't work so well. Tiny sugar crystals formed behind the thermometer served as nucleuses to grow large crystals.
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In Greg's successful attempt, an amorphous sheet is clear and sticky.
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crystalline sheet is opaque.
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category
dessert

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  • 2017⁄08⁄04(金)
  • 06:12

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  • 2017⁄06⁄08(木)
  • 06:04

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