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Fierce Meat Glue 2

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Shrimp Noodles (adapted from Chefsteps.com, original product credit to Wylie Dufresne)

Equipment


Digital Balance
Food Processor
Rubber Spatula
Pastry Bag (with tip)
Tamis or Fine Mesh Strainer
Immersion Circulator
Large Pot or Plastic Tub (Lexan)
Spider Strainer or Sauce Skimmer
Ice Bath (Large Bowl filled with Ice and Water)
Large Pot
Oven
½ Sheet Tray
Parchment Paper



Ingredients

400 g Shrimp, peeled and deveined
7.5 g Activa RM
6.0 g Kosher Salt
1.75 g Black Pepper

Procedure Shrimp Noodle Base

1. Place shrimp in food processor and puree until nearly smooth. Scrape down sides with rubber spatula.
2. Add Activa, salt, and pepper. Continue to puree until smooth paste develops.
3. Pass paste through tamis to remove and possibility of lumps.
4. Set desired tip on pastry bag. Load puree into bag.

Procedure Shrimp Noodle Trial 1

1. Fill pot or tub with water until 2” from rim. Insert immersion circulator and set to 730C.
2. Use spider to create whirlpool in water bath. Extrude 1/3 paste from pastry bag into whirlpool, cutting to desired length.
3. Allow to cook for 5 minutes.
4. Using spider, remove noodles and place in ice bath to cool. 
Procedure Shrimp Noodle Trial 2

1. Fill pot with water and bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat to simmer 1000C (boiling but not violently).
2. Use spider to create whirlpool in water bath. Extrude 1/3 paste from pastry bag into whirlpool, cutting to desired length.
3. Allow to cook for 3 minutes.
4. Using spider, remove noodles and place in ice bath to cool.

Procedure Shrimp Noodle Trial 3

1. Preheat oven to 3500F.
2. Cut parchment paper to fit ½ sheet tray.
3. Using remaining shrimp paste, pipe noodles onto parchment paper lined tray to length of sheet tray.
4. Place in oven and cook for 10 minutes (or until just cooked through).
5. Remove tray from oven and allow to cool slightly.
6. Remove from try and place in ice bath to cool.


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References

Chefsteps.com. “Shrimp Noodles”. www.chefsteps.com/activities/shrimp-noodles
category
Category: None

Fierce Meat Glue

Boneless Fried Chicken

Equipment


Cutting Board
Boning Knife
Refrigerator
Meat Tenderizer or Mallet
Plastic Wrap
Tray
Shaker or Tea Strainer
Spider Strainer
Large Pot or Deep Fryer
Probe Thermometer


Ingredients

1 ea Chicken, whole, giblets removed
AN Activa RM
AN Salt
AN Fresh Ground Pepper
2 L Peanut Oil (may substitute with Vegetable or Grapeseed Oil, or even
Duck Fat

Procedure

1. Remove wings from chicken at second joint.
2. Remove skin from chicken in one piece, starting from backbone and moving from one side to the other. Try to keep intact and avoid any holes.
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3. Lay skin flat on cutting board and remove any excess skin from wing and leg areas.
4. Roll skin into cylinder, wrap in plastic wrap and reserve in refrigerator.
5. Remove legs, breast, and wing meat from chicken.
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6. Remove bones from legs, breast, and wings, while leaving meat intact in singular piece. Reserve carcass and bones for stock.
7. Lay leg piece flat on cutting board. Remove any excess tendons or connective tissue. Pound to ¼” thick with meat mallet/tenderizer. Set aside.
8. Lay chicken breast flat on cutting board. Remove tenderloin from breast. Again, pound to ¼” thickness with meat mallet.
9. Remove a piece of plastic roughly 3 times wider than length of chicken leg from roll and lay flat on table with near edge at lip of table.
10. Lay 1 piece of leg meat on plastic.
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11. Sprinkle with Activa using shaker or tea strainer. Season with salt and pepper.
12. Lay 1 piece of breast meat over leg meat so that is roughly covers leg portion.
13. Repeat step 11.
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14. Lay 1 tenderloin down middle of breast meat.
15. Use plastic wrap to form chicken into a TIGHT thin cylinder. Use the edge of the table and the tray to pull tight.
16. Twist ends tight and reserve.
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17. Remove skin from refrigerator. Lay flat on cutting board.
18. Cut a rectangle shaped piece from the skin that is 1.5x the circumference of the cylinder. Allow for 1” of additional chicken skin on either side of cylinder.
19. Remove a piece of plastic roughly 3 times the width of the chicken cylinder from roll and lay flat on table with near edge at lip of table.
20. Lay cut skin flat in center of plastic closer and 2/3 away from near edge of plastic.
21. Sprinkle with Activa. Season with salt and pepper.
22. Unwrap from plastic wrap chicken cylinder and place in center of skin.
23. Use plastic wrap to roll into tight cylinder approximately 6”-8” long and 1 ½” – 2” in diameter. Twist ends tight.
24. Wrap in plastic a second time. Place in refrigerator to set up for minimum 4 hours, preferably overnight.
25. Preheat fryer to 3500F.
26. Remove chicken cylinder from refrigerator. Remove both layers of plastic wrap.
27. Cook in fryer for 8-10 minutes until internal temperature of 1650F is reached.
28. Remove from fryer with spider and drain on paper towels. Season with salt and pepper.
29. Slice into ½” thick medallions to eat.
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category
Category: None

Fierce Sous Vide

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Cooking the ribs at 62C for 72 hours resulted in tender meat with pink (medium rare color). Tough collagen is converted to gelatin.
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Beef Short Ribs Three Ways: Pressure Cooked, Sous-vide, Oven Braised
Salmon Two Ways: Sous-vide and Baked
40 Minute Egg at Five Temperatures

A1. Sous-vide Beef Short Ribs (adapted from Modernist Cuisine)

Equipment


Medium Saute Pan
Spatula or Tongs
Half Hotel Pan (2)
100ml Measuring Pitcher
Small Mixing Bowl
Vacuum Seal Bags
Vacuum Sealer
Immersion Circulator and Water Bath, set to 600C
Ice Bath
Boning Knife
Cutting Board


Ingredients

1 ea Beef Short Rib Plate, excess fat removed (approx. 1000g)
As Needed Kosher Salt
As Needed Fresh Ground Black Pepper
50 ml Vegetable Oil
60 ml Beef Broth, cold

Procedure

1. Fill one half hotel pan 2/3 full with ice. Place second half hotel pan on ice. Place entire apparatus in freezer until needed.
2. Liberally season short rib with salt and pepper.
3. Heat sauté pan over medium high heat.
4. Add 30 ml vegetable oil, heat to shimmering.
5. Add short rib to pan.
6. Sear on all sides until golden brown, including edges. Use tongs or spatula to manipulate short rib.
7. Remove from pan and place on half hotel pan resting on ice, and allow to cool in refrigerator. Flip short rib periodically to allow for even cooling.
8. When appropriately chilled remove short rib from cooling apparatus.
9. Pour any juices collected into small mixing bowl. Add beef broth and stir to combine.
10. Place short rib into vacuum bag (allow for plenty of room as liquid will “boil” during vacuum process). Add beef broth.
11. Vacuum seal bag on 98% vacuum.
12. Place in 600C water bath. Cook for 72 hours.
13. Remove and place in ice bath, until appropriately cold.
14. Remove from ice bath.
15. Reserve cold until ready to serve.
To serve:
16. Place cooked short rib into water bath (600C) for 30 minutes.
17. Remove short rib from bag and pat dry.
18. Remove bones and trim sinewy sections around bone.
19. Remove edges if desired for presentation purposes.
20. Dice into 1” cubes for sampling.
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A2. Pressure Cooked Short Ribs (adapted from Modernist Cuisine)

Equipment


6 qt Pressure Cooker
Spatula or Tongs
Plate or Small Tray
100ml Measuring Pitcher
1000ml Measuring Pitcher
Cutting Board
Boning Knife





Ingredients

1 ea Beef Short Rib Plate, excess fat removed (approx. 1000g)
As Needed Kosher Salt
As Needed Fresh Ground Black Pepper
50 ml Vegetable Oil
725 ml Beef Broth

Procedure

1. Liberally season short rib with salt and pepper.
2. Place pot of pressure cooker onto stove over medium high heat.
3. Add vegetable oil.
4. When oil is shimmering, add short rib.
5. Sear on all sides until golden brown, including edges. Use tongs or spatula to manipulate short rib.
6. When properly browned, remove short rib from pot.
7. Discard oil, and allow pot to cool slightly.
8. Add beef broth to pot. Add short rib.
9. Place pressure cooker lid on pot and secure.
10. Replace pot on stove.
11. Bring pot to a boil and reduce to simmer (medium heat) allow to vent gently for ten minutes to allow steam to build up.
12. Set gauge to 2 (15 psi) and cook for 50 miinutes.
13. When time is up, remove pressure cooker from heat, and open valve to release steam pressure. BEWARE - ESCAPING STEAM WILL BE EXTREMELY HOT AND UNDER INTENSE PRESSURE WHEN VALVE IS OPENED. KEEP FACE AND BODY AWAY FROM ESCAPING STEAM.
14. When pressure is COMPLETELY released, remove lid. BEWARE – CONTENTS UNDER INTENSE PRESSURE. IF PRESSURE IS NOT PROPERLY RELEASED PRIOR TO OPENING, LID COULD POP OFF AND SPRAY BOILING LIQUID.
15. Remove short rib from pot and place on cutting board.
16. Remove bones and surrounding sinew.
17. Dice into 1” cubes for sampling.


A3. Oven Braised Short Rib

Equipment


Dutch Oven or wide 6 qt Pot with Lid
Tongs or Spatula
100ml Measuring Pitcher
1000ml Measuring Pitcher
Cutting Board
Boning Knife
Pastry Brush
500ml Container Filled with Water



Ingredients

1 ea Beef Short Rib Plate, excess fat removed (approx. 1000g)
As Needed Kosher Salt
As Needed Fresh Ground Black Pepper
50 ml Vegetable Oil
1200 ml Beef Broth

Procedure

1. Preheat oven to 3500F.
2. Liberally season short rib with salt and pepper.
3. Place dutch oven onto stove over medium high heat.
4. Add vegetable oil.
5. When oil is shimmering, add short rib.
6. Sear on all sides until golden brown, including edges. Use tongs or spatula to manipulate short rib.
7. When properly browned, remove short rib from pot.
8. Discard oil, and allow dutch oven to cool slightly.
9. Replace short rib in pot. Add beef broth to pot (it should come up not further than halfway on short rib).
10. Return dutch oven to stove over medium high heat. Bring short ribs and liquid to a boil.
11. Use wet pastry brush to brush down interior sides of pot. Place lid on dutch oven and place into oven.
12. Cook for until rib meat is easily pierced with a fork, approximately 2 hours. Every 30 minutes, remove pot from oven, remove lid, flip short rib, brush down interior surfaces of pot, replace lid, and remit to oven to continue cooking.
13. When short rib is properly cooked, remove dutch oven from oven. Remove lid and allow to cool slowly to room temperature before placing in refrigerator to chill completely.
To serve:
14. Remove short rib and liquid pot from refrigerator. Remove any fat that has congealed on surface.
15. Place pot over medium heat and gently bring short rib to internal temperature of 1800F.
16. Remove short rib from pot and place on cutting board.
17. Remove bones and surrounding sinew.
18. Dice into 1” cubes for sampling.

B1. Sous Vide Cooked Salmon
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Equipment


Digital Balance
Mixing Bowl, medium
Whisk
2 qt Shallow Container, flat bottom
Plastic Wrap
Slotted Spatula
Vacuum Seal Bags
Vacuum Sealer
Immersion Circulator with Water Bath set to 480C
Scissors
Cutting Board
Fillet Knife


Ingredients

200g Salmon fillet portions, boneless
150g Water
5.5g Salt
5g Sugar
60g Extra Virgin Olive Oil

Procedure

1. Divide Salmon into 2 100g portions of equal thickness.
2. Place water, sugar, and salt in mixing bowl. Whisk to combine until sugar and salt are dissolved.
3. Place salmon portions in 2 qt container . Pour brine over. Cover with plastic wrap and place in refrigerator for 24 hours.
4. After 24 hours, remove portions with slotted spatula, pat dry, and place into vacuum bags.
5. Add 30g olive oil to each bag.
6. Vacuum seal bags on 98%.
7. Allow fish to marinade in bag in refrigerator for 2 hours.
8. Remove from refrigerator, and place bagged salmon into 480C water bath.
9. Cook for 25 minutes.
10. Remove fish from water bath. Cut bag open with scissors and place fish onto cutting board.
11. Cut into 1” cubes for sampling.
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B2. Baked Salmon

Equipment


Digital Balance
Mixing Bowl, medium
Whisk
2 qt Shallow Container, flat bottom
Plastic Wrap Quarter Sheet Tray
Parchment Paper
Pastry Brush
Oven (3500F)
Digital Temperature Probe
Slotted Spatula
Cutting Board
Fillet Knife


Ingredients

200g Salmon fillet portions, boneless
150g Water
5.5g Salt
5g Sugar
30g Extra Virgin Olive Oil

Procedure

1. Divide Salmon into 2 100g portions of equal thickness.
2. Place water, sugar, and salt in mixing bowl. Whisk to combine until sugar and salt are dissolved.
3. Place salmon portions in 2 qt container . Pour brine over. Cover with plastic wrap and place in refrigerator for 24 hours.
4. After 24 hours, remove portions with slotted spatula, pat dry, and place into vacuum bags.
5. Preheat oven to 3500F, just prior to removing fish from brine.
6. Cut parchment paper to just line the bottom of the cooking tray
7. Brush olive oil onto all surfaces of the salmon portions. Place salmon portions on tray
8. Place tray in oven, cook fish to internal temperature of 470C, approximately 15-20 minutes.
9. When desired temperature is reached remove tray from oven, and using slotted spatula remove fish from tray and place on cutting board.
10. Cut fish into 1” cubes for sampling.
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C. Eggs Cooked for 40 Minutes at Five Temperatures

Equipment

Immersion Circulators with Water Baths set to 540C, 570C, 600C, 630C, 660C
Spider
Ramekins (15)
Stopwatch

Ingredients

15 ea. Eggs, Large

Procedure

1. Set up water baths and preheat to appropriate temperatures.
2. Place 3 eggs into each of the five water baths.
3. Cook for 40 minutes.
4. Prelabel ramekins, three for each temperature setting
5. Remove eggs from water bath using spider.
6. Crack eggs from each temperature trial into the prelabled ramekins.
7. Make observations as to texture, clarity, firmness, fluidity of cooked eggs, both whites and yolks
8. Taste each sample and observe textural differences.
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Category: None

Fierce Spherification

Week 4 - Lab 1- Gelation and Spherification
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Apple Caviar, Cider Gel, Tofu Noodles

Objectives
• To demonstrate gelation using plant based gelling agents (agar)
• To demonstrate spherification and reverse spherification techniques utilizing sodium alginate and a calcium salt
• To demonstrate the production of hot gels using methylcellulose

A. Cider Gel (adapted from Alinea by Grant Achatz)

Equipment


Small Disposable Cups (Dixie Cups)
Non-stick Cooking Spray
Plastic Wrap
Digital Balance
Knife
Cutting Board
Small Saucepan
Blender
Fine Mesh Strainer
Medium Mixing Bowl
1 oz Ladle
Refrigerator

Ingredients

250g Granny Smith apples
250g Apple Cider
5g Kosher Salt
7g Agar Agar

Procedure
1. Lightly spray interior surfaces of Dixie cups with non-stick cooking spray.
2. Line each cup with plastic wrap, trying to eliminate any wrinkles. Set aside.
3. Peel and core apples. Cut into pieces approximately 2”.
4. Place apples, cider, salt, and agar in small saucepan. Bring to simmer over medium heat. Cook for 15 minutes or until apples are soft.
5. When apples are soft, pour contents of saucepan into blender. Blend until smooth. BEWARE WHEN BLENDING HOT OBJECTS. THEY HAVE TENDENCY TO SPLATTER AND CAUSE BURNS. INITIALLY PULSE THE BLENDER TO RELEASE STEAM BEFORE LEAVING IT ON CONTINUOUS BLEND.
6. When puree is smooth, strain through fine mesh strainer into medium mixing bowl.
7. Fill 1 oz ladle half full and pour into prepared Dixie cups.
8. Refrigerate for 2 hours or until set.
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B. Apple Caviar (adapted from Modernist Cuisine by Myhrvold, et al.)
Equipment


Digital Balance
Blender
Whisk
Fine Mesh Strainer
Slotted Spoon or Fine Mesh Sauce Skimmer
Squeeze Bottle
Small Mixing Bowls (4) or Plastic Quart Containers


Ingredients

250g Apple Juice
2g Sodium Alginate
500g Water
2.5g Calcium Chloride
AN Additional Water, for rinsing spheres

Procedure

1. Combine sodium alginate with 50g of apple juice in blender. Blend to incorporate.
2. Pour alginate juice mixture into mixing bowl. Add remaining apple juice. Stir to combine thoroughly.
3. Pour apple juice alginate mixture into squeeze bottle.
4. Blend calcium chloride with 500g water until completely dissolved. Pour into separate mixing bowl.
5. Fill two additional mixing bowls 2/3 full with cold water.
6. Drip alginate/apple juice mixture into calcium chloride bath, drop by drop.
7. After 1 minute, use slotted spoon or skimmer to remove spheres and place in first rinse bath.
8. Remove from first rinse bath and place in second rinse bath.
9. Remove from second rinse bath; gently shake to remove any excess water.
10. Store in lidded container until ready to use.
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C. Tofu Noodles (adapted from Modernist Cuisine by Myhrvold, et al.)

Equipment


Digital Balance
Small Saucepot
Immersion Blender
Refrigerator
Squeeze Bottle
Large Saucepot
Slotted Spoon or Sauce Skimmer
Plate or Soup Bowl


Ingredients

150g Water
7.5g Methylcellulose
340g Firm Tofu, diced
AN Salt
AN Sesame Oil
AN Additional Water for cooking noodles

Procedure
1. Fill large saucepot 2/3 full with water. Bring to boil over high heat. Reduce heat until water is steaming but not bubbling and reserve.
2. In small saucepot, combine 150g water and methylcellulose. Stir to disperse.
3. Place pot on stove and bring to boil over medium heat.
4. Add diced tofu. Blend with immersion blender until smooth.
5. Season puree with salt and sesame oil.
6. Remove from heat and cool to 500C.
7. Place in suitable container and refrigerate to hydrate, at least 6 hours.
8. After proper hydration, transfer to squeeze bottle.
9. To make noodles, squeeze hydrated tofu puree into hot water. Allow to set briefly and remove with skimmer.
10. Place noodles in separate bowl, set aside or refrigerate.
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References

Achatz, Grant. 2008. Alinea. Ten Speed Press: Berkley, CA

Myhrvold, Nathan, Young, Chris, Maxime Bilet. 2011. Modernist Cuisine. The Cooking Lab: Bellevue, WA.
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Science of Cider Gel

This recipe was adopted from Alinea by Grant Achatz (1974-). Restaurant Alinea (2005-) was awarded the Best Restaurant in America by Gourmet Magazine in 2006 and subsequently was awarded three stars by Michelin Guide-Chicago. Grant Achatz is identified as the molecular gastronomist who is able to make creative pairing of smells and flavors. In an interview by NPR (March 03, 2011) he commented that “a lot of smells that aren't necessarily edible smell good, and they remind you of certain aspects of food. So making those associations with what smells good or smells a certain way and pairing that with actual edible ingredients is one avenue that we take creatively." At Alinea, cider gel is served with pheasant, shallot on smoking oak branch skewers. An interview shows how it is made and presented. It is one course of a 20-course meal.

Both ingredients, granny smith and agar, could be considered to be examples of rejected cornerstones. The first paragraph in the “Granny Smith Apple-the story of its origin” reads that “Of locally-grown apples, none is more esteemed than Granny Smith—attractive both in appearance and flavor, unexcelled as a keeper” (Sunday Times, Perth, WA, Australia, Sunday 2 November 1924). The article describes the second-hand account of the apple’s humble origin. The apple is named after Maria Ann “Granny” Smith (1799-1870) who cultivated the cultivar. It is a hybrid between rotted Tasmanian apples that Ms. Smith discarded in the creek and apples she was growing in her orchard.

Minoya Tarozaemon discarded a gel dish (tokoroten) in Kyoto, Japan in the late 1650s or early 1660s. It froze during the night, and thawed during the day. The cyclic freezing and thawing desiccated the gel. Minoya made the gel dish (tokoroten) using the freeze-dried material and noticed that the dish was more agreeable and carry less seaweed flavor. Minoya marketed the dried goods as kanten (meaning “frozen tokoroten”). This episode frequently retold is likely to be a folktale and not factual (Nomura, 1951, 寒天の歴史地理学研究, p16). Agar is used to make a popular Japanese dessert called anmitsu.

A consideration for choosing agar was that agar is suitable for vegetarians since it is derived from red-purple marine algae unlike gelatin. It is typically hydrated in boiling liquids and is stable across a wide range of acidity levels. The pH of apple juice is 3.35-4. It begins to gel once it cools to around 100ºF / 40ºC. Agar gel forms reversible gel. It melt at 185ºF / 85ºC.

Typically agar is used at 0.2% of the total weight to thicken, 0.5% for a firm jelly. Interestingly the recipe results in not very firm gels at 14%.
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Category: None